Gamma-enolase, also known as Enolase 2, belongs to the enolase family. The alpha/alpha homodimer of ENO2 is expressed in embryo and in most adult tissues. The alpha/beta heterodimer and the beta/beta homodimer are found in striated muscle, and the alpha/gamma heterodimer and the gamma/gamma homodimer in neurons. During ontogenesis, there is a transition from the alpha/alpha homodimer to the alpha/beta heterodimer in striated muscle cells, and to the alpha/gamma heterodimer in nerve cells. Levels of ENO2 increase dramatically in cardiovascular accidents, cerebral trauma, brain tumors and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. ENO2 has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties on a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. It binds to cultured neocortical neurons and promotes cell survival in a calcium-dependent manner.